Child Research And Development Organisation
Teacher effectiveness is the result of effective teaching. Aspects of effective teaching include : Having a positive attitude The development of a pleasant social / psychological climate in the classroom Having high expectations of what pupils can achieve Lesson clarity Effective time management Strong lesson structuring The use of a variety of teaching methods Using and incorporating pupil ideas Using appropriate and varied questioning.
However, effective teaching methods are context specific. What is needed for a teacher to be effective can vary depending upon factors such as:
The type of activity in the lesson the subject matter the pupil backgrounds (such as age, ability, sex, socio-economic status and ethnicity) the pupil’s personal characteristics (such as personality, learning style, motivation and self-esteem) the culture / organization of the department, school. From the above discussion we can conclude teacher effectiveness as follows.
Teacher effectiveness is the impact that class-room factors, such as teaching methods, teacher expectations, class-room organizations and use of class-room resources, have on Student‘s performance.
Teacher effectiveness is the power to realize socially valued objectives agreed for teacher‘s, especially, but not exclusively, the work concerned with enabling students to learn.
Teacher effectiveness is the attribute of a teacher who has the capability or potential of having a positive impact on student learning, behavior and attitudes.
Teachers become public figures when something goes wrong with education systems or when they are needed to implement reforms. They acquire public status also when they negotiate salaries and working conditions or take a stand in relation to some issue. Most of the times, teachers work in their classrooms and schools ignorant of the discussions about their functions and performance. Many policies on teachers are being framed to assess their conceptual knowledge as well as their practicality in producing expected results. Today, a drastic change in education system leads to change in performance of teachers. In present times, teachers build up an invaluable armory of long-term strategies and quick fixes that every novice would give a right arm for. Present teachers are busier than ever. Thus, the problem before us is to regulate the quality of teaching through setting of standards and at the same time, evaluate teacher‘s performance. We all are working tooth and nail for setting the standards, but we need less attention towards the appraisal or evaluation of teacher‘s performance.
P.A. is personnel evaluation method seeking the measurement of employee work effectiveness using objective criteria. P.A. systems hope to achieve higher productivity outcomes by delineating how employees meet job specifications. A major challenge for performance appraisal systems is to define performance standards while maintaining objectivity.
P.A. is one of the important components in the rational and systematic process of human resource management.
Appraisal may be defined as a structured formal interaction between a subordinate and supervisor that usually takes the form of a periodic interview. (Annual or Semi Annual)
1) To identify the better performing employees who should get the majority of available merit pay increases, bonuses and promotions.
2) To manage performance.
3) To know how P.A. contributes to performance.
4) To review past behavior and provide opportunity to reflect on past performance.
From employee view point:
1) Tell me what you want me to do?
2) Tell me how well I have done it?
3) Help me improve my performance
4) Reward me for doing well.
Organizational view point:
1) To establish and uphold the principles of accountability.
Teacher‘s Performance Appraisal or Evaluation means a systematic evaluation of the teacher with respect to his/her performance on job and also, her potent development. Infect, performance appraisal is formal, structured system of measuring, assessing and evaluating a teacher‘s job, her behavior and judging how he / she is presently performing the job. It also includes forecasting how he / she can perform the job more effectively in future.
1) The evaluation of teacher should be linked to the mission of the school.
2) The evaluation of teacher should be linked to the standards set up by teacher for herself.
3) The evaluation of teacher should be viewed as a continuing process. There should be alternative formative techniques used as forms of evaluation and when one gets completed, implement a new one.
4) The new evaluation system of teacher also emphasizes upon summative evaluation, i.e. judgments of teachers made through collaboration of student’s outcomes, opinions of peers, administrators, parents.
Teacher continuously steers the boat of education. He / she constantly strive to help the students to recognize their vital problems, to face their problems with confidence, skill and creative imagination. He / she guide the students day and night to recognize their desire and also nourish it in order to develop more adequate understanding.
With a view of evaluate teacher‘s constant efforts, formative evaluation of teachers should be done. Formative evaluation can be done through various techniques by bifurcating teacher‘s responsibilities into four main domains:
1Planning and Preparation
- a) Demonstrate knowledge of content and pedagogy: This refers to what planning has the teacher done to demonstrate her knowledge of a particular subject by interrelating it with teaching skills.
- b) Select instructional goals: This refers what goals have the teacher set for herself, her subject, her lessons and her students.
- c) Manage Resources: This refers to how far the teacher has planned her teaching-learning activities in limited available resources.
- d) Design Coherent Instructions: This refers to what has the teacher planned in coordinating curriculum with extra activities. This domain can be evaluated through – Sample Unit Plan made by teacher Sample Lesson Plan made by teacher Teaching Artifacts planned by teacher
2.The Classroom Environment:
- a) Create an environment of respect and rapport: This refers to how far the teacher has been successful in creating environment of respect and rapport. This can be evaluated on the basis of Table 2.
Table 2: Creating Environment on Respect and Rapport
Teacher‘s Behaviour Student‘s Reaction
1 Teacher interaction with some students is negative, demeaning, sarcastic or inappropriate.
Students exhibit disrespect for teacher.
2 Teacher – student interactions are generally appropriate but may reflect occasional inconsistencies, favoritism or disregard for students cultures.
Students exhibit only minimal respect for teacher.
3 Teacher student interaction is friendly and demonstrates general warmth, caring and respect
Students exhibit respect for teacher.
4 Teacher demonstrates genuine caring and respect for individuality of every
Students make such teachers their role models.
- b) Establish a culture for learning : The culture for learning can be established by Becoming an effective tutor Getting pupils to talk to you Helping pupils who do not believe in themselves Coping with emotional pupils Providing personal and pastoral care
- c) Manage classroom procedures : The teacher can be evaluated on the basis of how far he / she has been successful in managing classroom procedures Preparing herself well for the lesson Preparing children for the lesson Providing practical activities Keeping children on task Involving children Displaying work Preparing for consolidator activities like worksheets, experiments etc.
- d) Manage Students Behavior: The teacher can be evaluated on basis of how far he / she could manage student behavior. This includes: Dealing with upset children by being gentle but firm giving them, more time and space and becoming their friends. Dealing with bad behavior through knowledge of psychology. Making Children feel secure and comfortable by being consistent, fair, and judicious and not being too rigid. Helping children to build self esteem by praising them, managing stressful situations and supporting their proper decisions.
- e) Organize Physical Space: The teacher‘s evaluation can also be done on the basis of how far he / she has provided satisfactory
Seating arrangement in available classroom cares for hygiene and sanitation and providing sufficient lighting facilities playground facilities etc.
This domain can evaluated through direct observation of teacher in classroom by an expert principal or supervisor Teacher student relationship table Student surveys Samples of student work teaching artifacts
3: The Classroom Instruction
- a) Communicate clearly and accurately : The effective teacher is expected to have good command over the spoken language of school, speak in raised voice, with clarity in speech, proper speech-patterns and neither too fast nor too slow.
This is necessary part of classroom instruction. One of the factors to evaluate the teacher’s performance can be her clear and accurate speech and communication skills.
- b) Use various techniques: The effective teacher should make use of various techniques like questioning, discussion, demonstration, etc. to stimulate students and bring variety in teaching.
Use of suitable techniques will make the lesson easy and interesting for students. The teachers performance can be evaluated on basis of her selection and implementation of a particular technique in particular lesson.
- c) Engage students in learning : The effective teacher develops broad outlines, formulates objectives to be attained, selects materials and teaching aids suitable to age and level of student, uses appropriate teaching methods, does demonstration, experimentation illustrations, projects, fieldworks to give practical view of the subjects, develops and maintains pupil‘s interest in learning process, develops suitable study-habits in pupils, develops sense of appreciation for subject among pupils, evaluates pupil‘s progress using various evaluation techniques.
Thus the effective teacher constantly strives to engage students in learning. The teacher’s performance can be evaluated by assessing how far he / she have been successful in engaging students in learning.
- d) Provide feedback to students: The effective teacher needs to be a minute observer and evaluator herself. He / she are expected to do formal and informal observation of her students and give them appropriate feedback and also judge their potentials. This domain can be evaluated through –
Direct observation of teacher‘s class by an expert, supervisor or principal Teaching artifact Samples of student’s work Assignment provided by teacher
4: Professional Responsibilities:
It is sometimes said that degrees do make a teacher, but it is professionalism which develops a teacher. Indeed there is great deal more to being a teacher than just teaching. Every teacher will be faced with an array of additional duties. The effective teacher needs to fulfill these duties also. Hence the teacher can be evaluated on the basis of professional responsibilities.
- a) Competence in the subject: The effective teacher, at whatever level, should be thoroughly competent in the subject he / she teach. He / she should acquire from advanced study a much wider and deeper knowledge of the subject matter that is directly needed in the class. One cannot teach what one does not know, nor can one teach with enthusiasm unless one know, so much about his field of learning that he is confident and enthusiastic about his specific subject. Facts, ideas and inspiration flow from a mind that is full.
The teacher can be evaluated on the basis of her subject competency.
- b) Attending clinics, workshops, seminars, conferences: Such professional gatherings are held on special topic of discussion. The procedures are informal and the groups are small enough that problems of individual teacher can be sorted. The teachers
who attend these sessions have greater opportunities to learn, better ways of helping their students. The Teacher can be evaluated on the basis of her visits to such sessions.
- c) Conducting experimentation and research : Teachers may initiate their own experiments, or participate in large projects which aim at discovering new and different techniques for effective teaching. This can also be one of the factors to evaluate teacher‘s performance.
- d) Keeping Intellectually alert: Teacher should have daily association with magazines and books – professional and recreational, and in addition, should hold discussions with friends and colleagues to enliven his intellectual interest and deepen his thinking.
This becomes one of the factors to evaluate teacher‘s performance.
- e) Working with Outside Agencies: Teacher is expected to show professional while working with outside agencies. The teacher should maintain individual student records up to date, keep a case diary of relevant incidents or occurrences, keep accurate notes about any communication carried on with outside agencies and be prepared to express her opinions on the basis of records maintained.
The teacher‘s performance can be evaluated on the basis of what proportion of professionalism does he / she show in relation to working with outside agencies.
- f) Summative Evaluation : One of the evaluation technique to correct ineffective behavior of the teachers is to do subjective evaluation i.e. evaluation by all live elements surrounding teacher. This evaluation needs to be done at the end of the semester or academic year. Simple evaluation scale including space for comments on the particular strengths and weaknesses of the teacher can be asked to be rated by: a) Students b) Peers or Colleagues c) Administrators
- a) Rating by Students : In order to secure objective ratings, a teacher should give her students the opportunity to rate her anonymously and with complete impunity. Any feeling on the part of the student that there may be an attempt to discover his identity as a rater will, of course, influence his rating and thus defeat the entire purpose of the procedure. In order to prevent the handwriting from revealing the individual students the comments should be typed. Single, isolated comments may reflect a student‘s weakness, rather than the teachers; but when the same comment turns up a number of times, it is likely to be a good indication of teacher‘s behavior. Many research studies have indicated that student‘s opinions for their teacher‘s behavior in the classroom are competent. Even children in the lower grades seem to know what they are talking about when they comment on teachers.
Again the teacher should have full opportunity to study the comments made for her. Also, it is very important that he / she not be offended by unfavorable ratings and comments or sensitive about learning that her teaching is not totally effective. On the contrary he / she should regard it as an opportunity to improve his / her professional skills.
- b) Rating by Peers: Working in a school or college can be really miserable if the people around you are not supportive and helpful. It is very essential that colleagues around you are helpful and supportive. Infect fellow teachers can better help to evaluate the teacher. But here, the fellow teachers who are raters should keep in mind that they are rating one another for one another‘s development. Hence, too much friendship or animosity should not become the hurdle. Again, all the peers should avoid to join together to rate one another high. Further, the rating scale should not create conflicts among them.
- c) Rating by administrators : One of the important jobs of the teachers is to comply with the rules made by administrators, try to tackle them by working on his / her own terms and at the same time by not offending them, acting as a bridge between administrators and students and making sure that protocols as defined are respected cordially. Also, the teacher should exhibit co-operation in his / her behavior with non teaching personnel’s and peons. They being the helping hands of the organization, the teacher should not take undue advantage of his / her status. Besides, novel ideas, leadership qualities, punctuality are additional qualities that administrators expect from a teacher.
Hence a teacher can also be evaluated through administrators.
Teacher‘s Performance Appraisals are subject to a wide variety of inaccuracies and, biases which can be termed as rating errors occurs in the rater‘s observation, judgment and can seriously affect assessment results.
The most common occurring rating errors are:
- a) Leniency or severity: Leniency or severity on the part of any rater makes the assessment subjective. Subjective assessment defeats the very purpose of performance appraisal.
- b) Central Tendency: This occurs when teachers are incorrectly rated by the raters near the average or middle of the scale. Here the attitude of the rater is to play safe.
- c) Halo Error: A halo error takes place when one aspect of an individual‘s performance influences the evaluation of entire performance of the individual. For a teacher, a halo error occurs when a teacher who stays late at school to guide students might be rated high on content and method of teaching. Similarly, an attractive or popular teacher might be given a high overall rating.
- D) Rater Effect: This includes favoritism, stereotyping and hostility. Excessively high or low scores are given only to certain individuals based on rater‘s attitude towards the rate, not on actual outcomes.
- e) Perceptual Set: This occurs when the rater‘s assessment is influenced by previously held beliefs. g. If the administrator has a belief that teachers hailing from one particular region are intelligent and hardworking his subsequent rating of the teacher hailing from that region tends to be favorably high.
- f) Performance Attributes Order: Two or more attributes on the rating-scale follow or closely follow each other and both describe or rotate to a similar quality. The rater rates the first dimension accurately and then rates the second dimension similar to the first
Because of the proximity. If the attributes had been arranged in a significantly different order, the ratings might have been different.
- g) Spillover Effect : This refers to allowing past performance appraisal ratings to unjustifiably influence current ratings. This may happen in case of ratings done by Administrators or Peers.
If the above mentioned problems are overcome while rating, summative evaluation can give a clear picture of teacher‘s present performance and also can judge her potential development.
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